Technological Changes in Marine Fishing and Livelihood Threats of Fisher Folk

Jisha John

Abstract


The growing demand for fish in the developed and developing countries and the recognition of its place as a balanced diet to the rapidly growing population ensuring food security and as a foreign exchange earner are creating immense pressure on the world of fisheries. In the context of stagnating/depleting catches, sustainable development of fisheries sector and the livelihood of fishers become problems. The concern over the sustainability of fisheries resources and the resulting threat on the livelihood of the traditional fishers in Kerala form the subject matter of the present study. The study includes descriptive, exploratory and confirmatory research. It reveals that technological developments resulted in the stagnation/declining of marine landings in Kerala. It also identifies the sustainability issues which are directly or indirectly related to technology. Institutional and human conditions like open access, greed and competition make the situation more insecure. Pollution, discards and other institutional factors cause ecosystem damages and the fishers face livelihood threat and insecurity. Apart from these the fishers are deprived of livelihood assets. The threats faced by the fishers are related to work, environment, financial requirement, marketing difficulties and administration. It concludes that the policies adopted to ameliorate the livelihood conditions of the fishers must be based on the specificity of the need in each particular region. Further studies should be undertaken at the local level emphasizing the concept of sustainable development technology and Place Suited Community Centered Co-management where the principle of subsidiarity should be followed.

Keywords


sustainability, over fishing, discards, livelihood threat, and place based community Centered co-management.

Full Text:

4 PDF

References


Agriculture and Rural Development Sector Unit South Asia Region (2010). India marine fisheries issues, opportunities and transitions for sustainable development Report No 54259, Washington: The World Bank.

Alappat, B.J, Dikshit, A.K., & Basu, Sukanta. (1998). Threats to the marine environment Yojana, 42 (9).

Allison, Edward H., & Ellis, Frank (2001). The livelihood approach and management of small scale fisheries, Marine Policy 25, 377-388

Aswathy, N.A., Shanmugam,T.R & Sathiadhas,R. (2011). Economic viability of mechanized fishing units and socio-economics of fishing ban in Kerala. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 58(2).115-120

Bailey, C. (1998). The political economy of fisheries development. Third world Agriculture and Human Values, 5(1), 35-48.

Baland, Marie Jean, Bardhan, Pranab & Bowles, Samuel. ( 2007). Inequality, cooperation and environmental sustainability. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Bavinck et al. (2008). Time-zoning for the safe-guarding of capture fisheries: A closed season in Tamil Nadu India Marine Policy 32: 369-378.

Berg, Marrit Van Den & Lensing Jan, Bart. (2007). Work sharing in Kerala’s fisheries, Marine Policy. 31, 535-539.

Boopendranath, M.R. (2007). Possibilities of By-catch Reduction from Trawlers in India in K.K Vijayan, P Jayasankar, & P Vijayagopal, Indian fisheries - A progressive outlook. Kochi: Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute.

Carson, Rachel. (1962). Silent spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,

Chandrapal (2005). Indian Marine Fisheries : Issues, Opportunities and Transitions for Sustainable Development (2010) World Bank Report .

Charles, Anthony, T. (1994). Towards sustainability: the fishery experience. Ecological Economics 11, 201-211.

Crebs, Charles, J. (1994). The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance 4th (ed.) California:Addison Wesley Educational Publishers.

Department of Economics, Dr. John Mathai Centre, University of Calicut. ( 2009). Human development report of the fisher folk in Kerala, Kerala State Planning Board, Government of Kerala.

Eliott, David. (1997). Energy, society and environment (2nd ed.) London: Routledge.

Flaaten, Ola (2010). Fisheries Economics and Management www.globefish.org/up1 /papers/book.pdf. Retrieved on 11th Feb 2010.

FAO(2010). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010, http://www.fao.org/sof/sofia. Retrieved on 7th Nov. 2011.

Garcia , M. Serge & Grainger, Richard J.R. (2005). Gloom and Doom? The Future of Marine Capture Fisheries: Philosophical Transactions Biological Sciences, 360(1453), 21-46. Retrieved on 10/10/2011. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30040875

Gine, X. & Klonner, S. (2008). Credit constraints as barrier to technological adoption by the poor: Lessons from south Indian small scale fishery, Chapter 9 in Machiko Nissanke and Erik Thorbecke Globalisation and the poor in Asia. Can shared growth be sustained London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gordon, H. Scott. (1954). The Economic Theory of a Common- Property Resource: The Fishery. Journal of Political Economy, 62 (2),124-152

Government of India (2010). Climate change in India – A 4 x 4 assessment, A sectoral and regional analysis for 2030’s. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests.

Government of India Planning Commission (2008). Social sector Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-12 , Volume11 . New Delhi : Oxford University Press

Government of India, Planning Commission . (2008). Kerala Development Report. New Delhi: Academic Foundations.

Government of India. Planning Commission (2008). Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-2012 Oxford University Press.

Government of Kerala, (2007). Report of the expert committee for impact assessment of ban on bottom trawling imposed along Kerala coast, Thiruvanthapuram: Directorate of Fisheries, Vikas Bhavan.

Government of Kerala. (2012). Economic review 2011. Thiruvanthapuram: State Planning Board.

Hattendorf, John B. (2007). The oxford encyclopedia of maritime history Vol.2. Oxford University Press

Hilborn, Ray. (2007). Moving to sustainability by learning from successful fisheries Ambio .36 (4) 296-303

Hulse, Joseph H. . (2007). Sustainable development at risk ignoring the past . New Delhi: Cambridge University Press India Private Ltd and International Development Research Centre.

John, Jisha (2011) Technological Development and Deprivation: A Study of the Marine Fishing Community in Kerala in Dr. M.K Saralamma and Dr. Manju S. Nair (Eds.) Development vs. deprivation in the era of globalisation Vol-II New Delhi: Sonali Publications.

John, Jisha (2011). Technological Modernisation and its Environmental Impact: A Study on the Fishing Community of Kerala www.ecoinsee.org/6bconf/ Theme %20 C/CD.1.2%20Jisha.pdf Retrieved on May 15, 2012.

Jones, Charles, I. (2006). Introduction to economic growth (2nd ed.) New York, London: W.W.Norton & Company

Kadekodi, Gopal, K. (2001). Environment and Development in Rabindra N, Bhattacharya (ed.), Environmental economics An Indian perspective, New Delhi: .Oxford University Press.

Korakandy, Ramakrishnan. (2008). Fisheries development in India : The political economy of unsustainable development ( in two volumes). Delhi: Kalpaz Publications.

Kurien, John. (1994). “Technology Diffusion in Marine Fisheries: The Concrete Socio-Political and Ecological Interaction- A study of the Diffusion of Motorised Plywood Boats Along the Lower South-West Coast of India (Ph.D Thesis), Bombay: Tata Institute of Social Sciences.

Kurup, Narayana K. (2011). The looming perils of over-fishing. The Hindu, Wednesday December 7, 2011.

Mangel, Marc. (2006). The theoretical biologist’s tool box quantitative methods for ecology and evolutionary biology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mock, Greg & Steele, Paul (2006). Power to the poor Tapping the wealth of ecosystems, Environment. 48 (1).

Modayil , Joseph, Mohan, (2003) . Ensuring Sustainability in Marine Fisheries. Kerala Calling. July, Thiruvanthapuram: Government of Kerala.

Nayak, Nalini, Nandakumar, D., & Vijayan, A.J. (2006) Coastal population dynamics and ecosystem changes. how markets, technology and institutions affect the process along the west coast of India. Thiruvananthapuram: Protsahan.

Ostrom, Elinor (1990). Governing the commons. The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Panayotou, Theodre. (1982). Management Concepts for Small Scale Fisheries: Economic and Social Aspects, Fisheries Technical Paper. Rome: FAO.

Pauly, D. (1990). On Malthusian Over fishing. Naga, The ICLARM Quarterly 13(1):3-4 www.seaaroundus.org/..../dpauly/..../ 1990/…/ On Malthusian Overfishin...pdf Accessed on June 2009

Pauly, D. (1994). From growth to Malthusian overfishing: stages of fisheries resources misuse. Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin. South Pacific Commission, January Bulletin 3, 7-14

Pauly, D., Christensen, V et.al (2002) Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 418, 689-95.

Pauly D., Swartz, Wilf, Sumaila U., Rashid, Pauly D. (2010). Sourcing seafood for the three major markets : The European Union, Japan and the USA. Marine Policy 34, 1366-1373.

Pramod, G. (2010). Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Marine Fish Catches in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone, Field Report, Policy and Ecosystem Restoration in Fisheries, Fisheries Centre, Vancouver, Canada : University of British Columbia

Russell, Densie. (2010). Who rules the waves? piracy, overfishing and mining the oceans, London: Pluto Press.

Serageldin, I. (1996). Sustainability and the wealth of nations, first steps in an ongoing journey. Development studies and Monographs Series No.5. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Serageldin, I., & A.,Steer (Eds.) (1994). Making development sustainable: From concepts to action. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Singh, Kartar, Vallabha, Vishwa. (1996). Cooperative management of natural resources. New Delhi: Sage publishers

Swartz, Wilf, U.R, Sumalia, R. Watson & D. Pauly. (2010). Sourcing seafood for the three major markets: The EU, Japan and the USA , Marine Policy. 34 , 1366-1373.

The World Bank (2010). India marine Fisheries Issues, Opportunities and Transitions for Sustainable Development, Agriculture and Rural Development Sector Unit South Asia Region.

World Commission on Environment and Development (1987). Our common future, The Brundtland Report , London: Oxford University Press


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.